Monday, 18 May 2015

Chelsea Flower Show 2015

Press day at Chelsea Flower Show and the RHS trainees flocked into London to lend a hand while getting some insider's knowledge of the UK's most famous display of plants and garden design.

I was assigned to assist one of the judging committees for the exhibits in the Great Pavillion: on a tight schedule of two and a half hours we had to help the judges navigate their way through 17 exhibits, which they were to judge, according to their expertise.

The displays are judged based on the brief submitted by the designers, and according to horticultural and design criteria such as:
  • plants, 
  • overall impact;
  • endeavour;
so that the best receive a medal: bronze, silver, silver-gilt and gold. Special awards are also assigned to gardens and exhibits during the show.

The judging process is very confidential as the stakes are high for the participants of such a high-profile show, and results are not announced until tomorrow. That is why trainees are asked to help the judges get the space to view the exhibits thoroughly and in comfort, and the privacy to discuss and propose their votes without external pressure. In the process, we got the the opportunity to experience the judging first hand.

As the name reveals, Chelsea is mainly a flower show, but there were some fruit, vegetables and herbs exhibits and I was on the committee in charge of evaluating them, which was fascinating!

The judging viewing completed for the medals, a group of us also helped the judges on a further round of judging sessions for the awards. The judges were then going to spend the rest of the day finalising the distribution of medals and awards, while we got time to spend visiting the Show.

Potatoes at Chelsea!

My favourite edible exhibit was an educational potato display with some 140 varieties: tubers of varied colour and shape, grouped around their on species' plant, on a black background, put together by Morrice and Ann Innes and sponsored by seed and plant company Thompson & Morgan.





For some people, seeing such variety of potatoes must be a novelty indeed... it was for me when I was first invited to join a Facebook group of potato breeders and growers called "Kenosha Potato Project" where I've seen the strangest, more colourful and interesting shaped tubers from across the world and learned that "papas" is the original name of these favourites of tubers. They come as coloured and stragely shaped as below!




The Grenada's ‘Pure Grenada’s Rainforest’exhibit was also rather gorgeous, displaying lush green, bright colours, spices and fruits that are native to the island: one had to recognise tha some places on earth are blessed with particularly show-worthy flora, such a Solanum mammosum or titty fruit that is said to resemble a human nipple to one side and a cow's udder to the other, and pink banana Musa velutina.

Solanum mammosumMusa velutina
Delicious fruits, such as the colourful fruit of Theobroma cacao that gives us chocolate, or Zingiber zerumbet, with edible tubers, juice, leaves that can be used as flavouring and flower heads that provide shampoo!

Pouteria sapota and Theobroma cacao Zingiber zerumbet
I also found a delightful herb garden

Herbs exhibit
where I was particularly attracted by 3 herbs: Galium odoratum edible dainty leaves and white flowers, which I first saw in a garden I worked last year and two non edibles: Polemonium caeruleum with dark leaves and blue flowers and Prostanthera rotundifolia a shrub with pink flowers.

Pennard Plants stand

Detail of vegetables at Pennard's

And I will finally mention the rather glorious exhibit by Pennard Plants, inspired by a R. Kipling's poem"The Glory of the Garden" in its 150th anniversary, with stunning vegetables.







PS: Glad to say the potatoes I helped being judged got a gold medal, the first of its kind! Grenada and Pennard Plants were also gold medallists.

Friday, 15 May 2015

In the veg garden

Sowing sowing everywhere, than thinning out, planting out, covering, watering... nobody is to be left behind, in the rush to get the beds filled and looking lush! That is what I have been doing over the last two months in the veg garden particularly.

Sowing


To get the perfect sowing, the beds need raking to a fine tilth.

Then, with the help of a row maker, you can draw straight lines at even, well calculated distances, and of course perfect grids (for planting out). 

Rows to sowGrid to plant out
A meter stick is however better for sowing, and in in some planting out circumstances, and, with the occasional help of a trowel, or a bulb planter, over the last month I have sown shallots...

...
Radishes
Summer radishes are sown 1-1.5 cm deep, at 1 cm spacing (thinned to 5 cm), with and 20 between rows (15 in a greenhouse); one shouldn't water seedbed until germination. In summer, if the soil is dry, water the drill before sowing the seeds to create a microclimate for them to germinate but not the surrounding soils.
There are two type of summer radishes: rosette leaves (ideal for early sowing, require
lower light levels) for examle 'Rudi', 'Scarlet Globe' and tuft leaves (ie 'French Breakfast') which are  best sown towards the end of March.

If you sow too late they go straight to flower same if you don't thin them out.
Winter radishes you sow beginning of summer to Aug, they are ready Sep to
Nov, some like mooli, also know as daikon, overwinter but require wider spacing, at least 30 cm and 30 cm between rows.

2 March
13 March, thinning out
13 April
30 April

Spinach

Spinach is sown at 2.5-3 cm, then thinned straight away to 5 cm. Then, depending how big you want your plants, you can harvest one in two plants as baby leaf. 30 cm between rows.

Spinach is very sensitive to day lenght, there are early sowing (flowering on longer days) and late sowing varieties (that can be sown both spring and autumn, as they are flowering on shorter days).

2 March
20 April, thinning out

13 April

Beetroot
Beetroot is for April to June sowing, but a few vaieties that do not bolt if they get cold (ie 'Boltardy') so they can be sown earlier.
Spacing is to 5 cm (seeds are in cluster) and 30 in between rows. They require
thinning of any extra seed in the cluster that germinates by snipping off.
 

2 March
20 April, thinning out, poor germination

13 April

Carrots
Carrot 'Marion' is very good for growing all year round even if not the perfect flavour, but aside from that variety there are early maincrop and late carrots.
Carrots seeds are very thin, and difficult to handle. Taking only a small pinch at the time helps sowing at the right distance, which is 1 cm by 30 cm. 
Because of the risk of carrot fly (Psila rosae) attack, carrots are covered at sowing, only uncovered once for thinning out, then covered again until picking. Because of that, you will get one crop all together; however, since the carrot fly is not around in autumn, overwintering carrot can be picked as needed.
19 March
Fleecing the carrots against carrot fly

30 April thinning out, uncovering

Broad beans

Sown in the first week of March, took about a month to germinate
25 May
N.B. A good rule for sowing different crops next to each other: the space between them should be calculated as space of crop 1 + space of crop 2 divided by 2!

Thinning out

 

I have never practised thinning out before, so this was new learning for me. You have to choose the strongest seedlings that are about the distance you require, and pull out the remaining ones. If you do thin when the seedlings have a well developed root system already (because you are too late) or when you have seeds in cluster (like with beetroot) you have to snip the competitors off rather than pulling them out, so as not to disturb the roots of the ones you want to keep.

Once you have done your thinning, it is best practice to firm the seedlings in in the row, by earthing them up slightly from the sides. Then water them well.


Planting out


Several crops are grown in the propagation facilities and then planted out. All the brassicas and the lettuces for example.

One of the most interesting things I learnt while hear is that some crops like to be planted at the same level they were in the pot, even if they flop when planted (for example brassicas and lettuces). Others need firming, for example celery, which is also planted close together to provide a minimum blanching effect, even though modern varieties are self-blanching and do not need to be earthed up or otherwise be covered.

Brassicas

Brassicas like firm soil around them, and the taller the brassica, the firmer the soil needs to be. Brassicas need cabbage collars to keep the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) at bay (if kept soil free, they form a dry environment that dessicates any eggs laid on them, while in the process helping to slow down slugs).

Covering is also required from the cabbage white caterpillar (Pieris spp). But brassicas requires a lot of light and netting shades them. So we use netting with large holes, pulled taut so the butterflies cannot squeeze in!

14 April, cauliflowers
13 Apr, cabbages28 April, covered

Lettuces

I did plant quite a lot of lettuce, so I now feel rather confident. It is generally grown in jiffy's here, so- when they are about 10 cm tall, you need to water them well to start with, peel off the ridge of the pot, then plan them at soil level having well loosened the soil for example with a bulb planter, then firm gently. Finish with watering.

13 April20 April
28 Apr